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Thread: Bhartruhari Sringara Satakam

          
   
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    Bhartruhari Sringara Satakam

    01. Sambhu Svayambhu Harayooh harin`eekshan`aanaanam
    Yeenaah kriyanti satatam gruha karma daasaha
    Vaacaam agoocara caritra vicitra kaayaah
    Tasmai namoo bhagavatee Makaradhwajaayaha.

    Here, the poet salutes the Cupid (the God of Love). The poet praises the greatness of Cupid by quoting how the trinity of Gods have been influenced by him.


    The Creator (Brahma, here referred to as Svayambhu) wears his concert, the Goddess of Learning (Sarasvati) on his tongue.


    The Protector (Vishnu, here referred to as Hari) wears his concert the Goddess of Wealth (Lakshmi) on his chest.


    The Destroyer (Siva, here referred to as Sambhu) bears the Goddess of Power (Parvati) on the left half of his body.


    All the three Gods thus function as the servants of their spouses.


    REM: Firstly, whether we believe in any Gods or not, Hindu Gods or not, we can appreciate the beauty of expression of the verses. Secondly, we can also observe that there is not much gender inequality among Hindu Gods and Goddesses. Thirdly, the poet very clearly recognises the greatness of the Cupid and the mutual attachment of genders.

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    #002 WOMEN TIE DOWN LOVERS

    #002 WOMEN TIE DOWN LOVERS

    002. Smiteena bhaaveena
    lajjayaah gun`aihi
    Paraangmukhaih artha
    kat`aaksha viikshan`aiah
    Vacoobhir iirshyaa
    kalaheena liilayaaha
    Samasta bhaavaih
    khalu bandhanam striyaha.

    Women tie down their lovers through smiless, expressions, modesty, pretention of inattentiveness, askant looks, dialogues, jealosy, petty quarrels, tantrums and numerous other postures and gestures.

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    #003 GESTURES ARE BOTH ORNAMENTS AND WEAPONS

    #003 GESTURES ARE BOTH ORNAMENTS AND WEAPONS

    003. Bhruu caaturyaat kuncitaaha kat`aakshaaha,
    Snigdhaa vacoo lajjitaantaascha haasaaha,
    Liilaa mandam prasthitam ca sthitam ca,
    Striin`aam eetat bhuushan`am ca, aayudham ca.

    The poet calls the women’s gestures both as ornaments and weapons. He lists out the gestures: 1. Slightly bending the brows and looking from the edges of the eyes. 2. Friendly and affectionate talk. 3. Hesitant and modest smiles. 4. Slow elegant movement.

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    #004 Men and women go through emotions

    #004 Men and women go through emotions

    04. Kvacit sa bhruu bhagamgaih,
    kvacit api ca lajjaa parigataih,
    kvacit bhiiti trasaih,


    ”etaIls of the rays of light flowing from the love-full eyes of women. REM: The love making in that ancient age was not just for sexual gratification. The unification of bodies for the purpose of procreation was considered sacred and it was the culmination. Before that men and women go through emotions. The change of emotional state from “normal” to “seeking love and union” is called Uddiipanam. This inspiration has four stages: 1. Characteristics. 2. gestures of ecstasy. 3. apparels and costumes. 4. Neutralisation. In this verse, gestures of ecstasy have been explained.

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    #005 What women inherit by birth?

    #005 What women inherit by birth?

    05. Vaktram candrahaasi, pankaja parihaasa loocanee,
    Varn`aha svarn`am apaakarishn`u,
    kalin`ii jishn`u kacaanaam ca cayaha,
    Vakshoojaa nibha kumbha vikrama harau,
    gurvi nitamba sthalii,
    Vacaam ca haari ca maardavam,
    yuvatishu svaabhaavikam mand`anam.

    The poet describes the ornaments which women inherit by birth.

    1. Face resembling full moon
    2. Eyes resembling the petals of lotus.
    3. Complexion glowing brighter than gold.
    4. Strands of hair resembling butterflies
    5. Breasts resembling the forehead of a female elephant.
    6. Heavy hips.
    7. Smooth and sweet words.

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    #006 Beloved is like young deer.

    #006 Beloved is like young deer.

    6. Smitam kincin mugdham, saral`a tarakshoo drisht`I vibhavaha,parispandoo vaacaam, abhinava vilaasoo ukti sarasaha,
    Gataanaam aarambhaha kisalayita liilaa parikaraha,
    Sprus`anti yaas taarun`am, kim iva hi na ramyam, mriga dris`aha.

    What is not delightful in a lass? Everything is delectable in a nascent young lass looking like an young deer. The poet lists out:

    1. Smile a little innocent.
    2. Good and pervading looks.
    3. Nascent love-filled words.
    4. Elegantly styled steps just starting to take off.

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    #007 WHAT ARE THE BEST THINGS?

    #007 WHAT ARE THE BEST THINGS?

    007. Drasht`avyeeshu kim uttamam? Mriga dris`aha preema prasannam mukham!
    Ghraatavyeeshu api kim? Tadaasya pavanaha!
    S`ravyeeshu kim? Tadvacahaa!
    Kim svaadyeeshu? Tad oosht`ha pallava rasaha!
    Sprusyeeshu kim? Tad vapuhu!
    Dhyeeyam kim? Navayauvanee sahrudayaihi tad vibhramaha!

    The poet undertakes questions and answers.

    1. What is the best thing to see?
    Ans: The love filled face of the deer-like beloved.

    2. What is the best for smelling?
    Ans: Her breathe.

    3. What is the best to listen?
    Ans: Her words.

    4. What is the best for sipping?
    Ans: The juice from her succulent lips.

    5. What is the best for touching?
    Ans: Her body.

    6. What is the best to meditate on?
    Ans: The young gentle beloved’s ecstasy.

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    #008 GIRLS BEHAVE LIKE SWANS

    #008 GIRLS BEHAVE LIKE SWANS

    008. Yeetaas calad valaya samhati meekhaloottha
    Jhankaara nuupura paraajita raajahamsyaha
    Kurvanti na manoo vivas`am tarun`yoo
    Vitrasta mugdha harin`ii sadrusaih kat`aakshaih.

    The poet wonders: These girls equalling timid young deer with their askant looks, will they not captivate the hearts of men? The poet describes the capabilities of the girls and finds that they have excelled the male swans by attracting the female swans. Here, the excellence of the girls is in their elegant movement producing the “kala kala” sounds of swans. The bangles, the waist-ornaments, and the ornaments of the legs make resonant “gala gala” sounds.

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    #009 WHO WILL NOT BE TEMPTED?

    #009 WHO WILL NOT BE TEMPTED?

    9. Kumkuma pamka kal`amkita deehaa
    Gaura payoodhara kampita haaraaha
    Nuupura hamsa ran`at pada padmaa
    Kam na vas`ii kurutee bhuvi raamaha.

    Which man will not be tempted by lasses with bodies applied with vermillon all over, the gold colored breasts vibrating with laces (of pearls etc.), the dancing feet resonating with the sounds of anklets? (Implied answer: Every human will be tempted.)


    REM: Bhartruhari had seen both the worlds. The world of beauty, passion and temptation. And his culmination is in detachment and renunciation.

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    #010 WHO SAID THAT WOMEN ARE THE WEAKER SEX?

    #010 WHO SAID THAT WOMEN ARE THE WEAKER SEX?

    10. Nuunam hi tee kavi varaa vipariita vaacoo
    Yee Nityam Aahuur abalaa iti kaaminii staaha
    Yaabhir viloola taaraka drisht`i paatai
    S`akraadayooapi vijitaas tva abalaaha kat`ham taaha?

    Bhartruhari mocks at those great poets who call women as “the weak”. He says that they deride the established truth. His words are not fake. Just by the movement of irises, their looks have defeated Indra and other demi Gods (Indra is the chief of the Gods in Heaven). How can they be considered weak?


    In Bhartruhari’s view, even Cupid is a servant of ladies.

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