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Thread: Bhartruhari Neethi Sathakam

          
   
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    Bhartruhari Neethi Sathakam

    Bhartruhari Neethi Sathakam

    The period and life of Poet Bhartruhari cannot be pinned to a certain date as he never mentioned about himself in any of his works. But due to the quotes from other poets and historians, it is popularly believed that he is the brother of King Vikramaditya. This was year 56 BC. It is known that King Vikramaditya has 4 wives, one from each Varna and to them was born – varuchi, Vikramaarka, Bhatti and Bhartruhari in order.Subhashita Trisati was written in Sanskrit by Bhartruhari. This is 3 centum compilations. Each centum has a concept and hence can be divided into – Neeti Satakam (Moral values), Vairagya Satakam (Renunciation or philosophical) and Srungaara Satakam (About Love)In Neeti Satakam, the poet speaks about the 3 types of people – The virtuous, the good and the lowly wicked ones. Also the poet speaks about how fate and destiny are the prime components of decision in a person’s life.

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    bodhdharo mathsaragrasthaah |
    prabhvah smayadhooshithaah ||
    abodhopa hathaashchaanye |
    jeerna magge subhaashitham ||


    Those who have knowledge are filled with jealousy. The rulers? – They are vain with arrogance and behaving blindly. The common man is incapable of understanding well-meaning good words. Hence all these days, I couldn’t express my well meant thoughts (The poet means now he got an opportunity to say them in his poems)

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    ajnyah sukhamaaraadhyassukhathara |
    maaraadhyathe visheshajnyah ||
    jnyaanalavadhurvidhagdham |
    brahmaapi naram na ramjayathi ||

    You can make sense to those who donot know anything. You can explain to people who are well educated and sensible. But it is impossible to explain to a man with half baked knowledge and who thinks he is all knowing.

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    prapasahya manimudhdha renma karavakthradhamshtraantharaa |
    thsamudhramasi samtha rethprachaladhoormi maalaakulam ||
    bhajaggamapi kopitham shirasi pushpavadhdhaaraye |
    nnathu prathinivishtamoorkhajanachiththamaaraadhayeth ||

    One can take a precious gem stuck in the teeth of a crocodile with some effort. One can cross an ocean, even if heavy tides keep throwing one away onto the shore. One can domesticate a vicious snake and wear it like a garland around ones neck. But it is impossible to pacify a man, blind with unreasonable anger.

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    vyaalam baalamrunaalathasthubhirasau rodhdhum samujjrumbha the |
    bheththum vajramanim shireeshakusumapraanthena sannahyathi ||
    maadhuryam madhubandhunaa rachayithum kshaaraambu dhereehathe |
    moorkhaanyah prathinethumichchathi balaathsookthaih sudhaasyandhibhih ||

    To bind a hige elephant with the roots of lotus plant, to break a diamond using the petals of a flower, to add a drop of honey to make the ocean water sweet – how foolish are tsuch acts? Such is an attempt to make a vain man happy with wise words.

    One can accomplish any impossible acts, but not make sense to an ignorant man.

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    labhetha sikathaasu thailamapi yathnathah peedaya |
    pibechcha mrugathrushni kaasu salilam pipaasaardhithah ||
    kadhaachidhapi paryata shashavishaanamaasaadhaye |
    nnathu prathivishtamoorkhajanachiththamaaraadhayeth ||

    One can extract oil from sand with utmost effort. One can find water in a mirage. One can somehow get the horn of a rabbit. But it is impossible to pacify the foul mind of an angry vain person. It means one can make impossible things possible, but not make an unreasonably angry man happy.


    The poet proves his point using more exmaples

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    The poet tells how a half knowledge arrogant man should behave to keep one’s name. People who are

    svaayaththamekaanthahitham vidhaathraa |

    vinirmitham chaadhana majja thaayaah ||
    visheshathah sarvavidhaam samaaje |
    vibhooshanam maunamapandithaanaam ||

    If an ignorant man wishes to hoide his ignorance the only way is to keep quiet. Instead of blabbering off their ignorance before wise people, it is advisabale that they take refuge in silence.

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    If an ignorant man uses Silence as a way to control himself, maybe incourse of time, he will lear


    yadhaa kimchidh jnyo ham gaja ina madhaandhah samabhavam
    thadhaa sarvajnyo smeethya bhavadhavali ptham mama manah,
    yadhaa kimchithkimchidhbudhajana sakaashaadhavagatham
    thadhaa moorkho smithi jvara iva madho me vyapagathah.

    “I had a little knowledge, but assuming that I k all, I behaved vainly. Then when I met great wise men, I slowly realized how little I know and how much more I need to learn. Then I introspected and found the extent of my ignorance. Like a man experiences relief after being cured of a fever, I am experiencing lightness after getting rid of my arrogance”


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    Half knowledge makes a vain man give importance to lowly things. His vanity doesn’t allow him to


    krimikulachitham laalaaklinnam vigandhi jugupsitham |
    nirupamarasa preethyaa khaadha nkharaasthi niraamisham ||
    surapathimapi shvaa paarshvastham vilokya na shagkathe |
    nahi ganayathi kshudhro janthuh parigrahaphaluthaam ||

    A dog enjoys eating a donkey’s bone, even if it stinks due to contamination and is devoid of any meat. It gets immersed in relishing the bone, that, it will not care even if the God of Gods stands next to it. It will not feel ashamed. Thus is the nature of a half knowledged, vain man. He thinks his knowledge is everything.

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    Such vain people only get to experience disaster. Nothing great will happen to them.


    shirashvaarvam svargaathpashupathishira sthah kshithidharam |
    maheedhraadhuththuggaadhavanimavaneshchaapi jaladhim ||
    adho gaggaa neyam padhamupagathaa sthoka mathavaa |
    vivekabhrashtaanaam bhavathi vinipaathah shathamukhah ||


    The poet uses the flow of river Ganga as a metaphor to the doom of half knowledged vain people. (This comparision was not to speak derogatively about the sacred river Ganges, just a metopher to show the importance of position)
    The ruin of a vain man is like the flow f River Ganges that starts at the greatest point of Shiva’s head, to the lofty mountains of Himalayas, then to the land of earth and finally into the deep hades(patalam)…from the utmost respectable position to the lowest hades.

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